11.2.10

Al-Andalus: mitos e realidade

Um dos campos de acção da jihad cultural é a distorção da história. O Al-Andalus é um capítulo da nossa história, enquanto civilização, povo e país, que tem sido alvo desse tipo particular de jihad. Ouvem-se e lêem-se com frequência invocações saudosas de uma era durante a qual, sob domínio islâmico, muçulmanos, cristãos e judeus teriam vivido em paz e sã convivência, com um ou outro episódio de violência, casos apenas pontuais, provocados por fanáticos cristãos ou judeus, perante os quais às autoridades muçulmanas outra solução não teria restado senão a repressão violenta. Alguns apologistas do islão ― não necessariamente, ou, pelo menos, não assumidamente muçulmanos ― vão ao ponto de dizer que a invasão iniciada por volta do ano 711 ― e o domínio islâmico que dela resultou ― foi acolhida favoravelmente pela população ibérica de então, a qual viria a beneficiar de um longo período de benevolente domínio islâmico, só perturbado pelas irrupções de fanatismo supra mencionadas, período que teria sido levado a termo pelas investidas dos cristãos francos, pouco mais que bárbaros fanáticos da Cruz. Esta versão dos acontecimentos é duplamente perversa, porque distorce a história e porque visa promover um clima favorável à ofensiva islâmica em curso sobre o Ocidente. Perante ela temos a contrapor a verdade histórica. Para isso, contamos com a ajuda de Bat Ye'or e de Andrew Bostom, autores do texto infra, com o expressivo título Andalusian Myth, Eurabian Reality. Passemos então aos factos que desmentem categoricamente a versão corrompida da história que circula pelos media, pelo senso comum, até pela Academia:

«(...) Iberia (Spain) was conquered in 710-716 AD by Arab tribes originating from northern, central and southern Arabia. Massive Berber and Arab immigration, and the colonization of the Iberian peninsula, followed the conquest. Most churches were converted into mosques. Although the conquest had been planned and conducted jointly with a strong faction of royal Iberian Christian dissidents, including a bishop, it proceeded as a classical jihad with massive pillages, enslavement, deportations and killings.

Toledo, which had first submitted to the Arabs in 711 or 712, revolted in 713. The town was punished by pillage and all the notables had their throats cut. In 730, the Cerdagne (in Septimania, near Barcelona) was ravaged and a bishop burned alive. In the regions under stable Islamic control, Jews and Christians were tolerated as dhimmis like elsewhere in other Islamic lands ― and could not build new churches or synagogues nor restore the old ones. Segregated in special quarters, they had to wear discriminatory clothing. Subjected to heavy taxes, the Christian peasantry formed a servile class attached to the Arab domains; many abandoned their land and fled to the towns. Harsh reprisals with mutilations and crucifixions would sanction the Mozarab (Christian dhimmis) calls for help from the Christian kings. Moreover, if one dhimmi harmed a Muslim, the whole community would lose its status of protection, leaving it open to pillage, enslavement and arbitrary killing.

By the end of the eighth century, the rulers of North Africa and of Andalusia had introduced Malikism, one of the most rigorous schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and subsequently repressed the other Muslim schools of law. Three quarters of a century ago, at a time when political correctness was not dominating historical publication and discourse, Evariste Lévi-Provençal, the pre-eminent scholar of Andalusia, wrote: "The Muslim Andalusian state thus appears from its earliest origins as the defender and champion of a jealous orthodoxy, more and more ossified in a blind respect for a rigid doctrine, suspecting and condemning in advance the least effort of rational speculation." The humiliating status imposed on the dhimmis and the confiscation of their land provoked many revolts, punished by massacres, as in Toledo (761, 784-86, 797). After another Toledan revolt in 806, seven hundred inhabitants were executed. Insurrections erupted in Saragossa from 781 to 881, Cordova (805), Merida (805-813, 828 and the following year, and later in 868), and yet again in Toledo (811-819); the insurgents were crucified, as prescribed in Qur’an 5:33.

The revolt in Cordova of 818 was crushed by three days of massacres and pillage, with 300 notables crucified and 20 000 families expelled. Feuding was endemic in the Andalusian cities between the different sectors of the population: Arab and Berber colonizers, Iberian Muslim converts (Muwalladun) and Christian dhimmis (Mozarabs). There were rarely periods of peace in the Amirate of Cordova (756-912), nor later.

Al-Andalus represented the land of jihad par excellence. Every year, sometimes twice a year, raiding expeditions were sent to ravage the Christian Spanish kingdoms to the north, the Basque regions, or France and the Rhone valley, bringing back booty and slaves. Andalusian corsairs attacked and invaded along the Sicilian and Italian coasts, even as far as the Aegean Islands, looting and burning as they went. Thousands of people were deported to slavery in Andalusia, where the caliph kept a militia of tens of thousand of Christian slaves brought from all parts of Christian Europe (the Saqaliba), and a harem filled with captured Christian women. Society was sharply divided along ethnic and religious lines, with the Arab tribes at the top of the hierarchy, followed by the Berbers who were never recognized as equals, despite their Islamization; lower in the scale came the mullawadun converts and, at the very bottom, the dhimmi Christians and Jews.

The Andalusian Maliki jurist Ibn Abdun (d. 1134) offered these telling legal opinions regarding Jews and Christians in Seville around 1100 C.E.: "No…Jew or Christian may be allowed to wear the dress of an aristocrat, nor of a jurist, nor of a wealthy individual; on the contrary they must be detested and avoided. It is forbidden to [greet] them with the [expression], ‘Peace be upon you’. In effect, ‘Satan has gained possession of them, and caused them to forget God’s warning. They are the confederates of Satan’s party; Satan’s confederates will surely be the losers!’ (Qur’an 58:19 [modern Dawood translation]). A distinctive sign must be imposed upon them in order that they may be recognized and this will be for them a form of disgrace."

Ibn Abdun also forbade the selling of scientific books to dhimmis, under the pretext that they translated them and attributed them to their co-religionists and bishops. In fact, plagiarism is difficult to prove since whole Jewish and Christian libraries were looted and destroyed. Another prominent Andalusian jurist, Ibn Hazm of Cordoba (d. 1064), wrote that Allah has established the infidels’ ownership of their property merely to provide booty for Muslims.

In Granada, the Jewish viziers Samuel Ibn Naghrela and his son Joseph, who protected the Jewish community, were both assassinated between 1056 to 1066, followed by the annihilation of the Jewish population by the local Muslims. It is estimated that up to five thousand Jews perished in the pogrom by Muslims that accompanied the 1066 assassination. This figure equals or exceeds the number of Jews reportedly killed by the Crusaders during their pillage of the Rhineland, some thirty years later, at the outset of the First Crusade.

The Granada pogrom was likely to have been incited, in part, by the bitter anti-Jewish ode of Abu Ishaq, a well known Muslim jurist and poet of the times, who wrote: "Put them back where they belong and reduce them to the lowest of the low..turn your eyes to other [Muslim] countries and you will find the Jews there are outcast dogs...Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them...They have violated our covenant with them so how can you be held guilty against the violators?"

The Muslim Berber Almohads in Spain and North Africa (1130-1232) wreaked enormous destruction on both the Jewish and Christian populations. This devastation- massacre, captivity, and forced conversion- was described by the Jewish chronicler Abraham Ibn Daud, and the poet Abraham Ibn Ezra. Suspicious of the sincerity of the Jewish converts to Islam, Muslim “inquisitors” (i.e., antedating their Christian Spanish counterparts by three centuries) removed the children from such families, placing them in the care of Muslim educators. Maimonides, the renowned philosopher and physician, experienced the Almohad persecutions, and had to flee Cordoba with his entire family in 1148, temporarily residing in Fez — disguised as a Muslim — before finding asylum in Fatimid Egypt.

Indeed, although Maimonides is frequently referred to as a paragon of Jewish achievement facilitated by the enlightened rule of Andalusia, his own words debunk this utopian view of the Islamic treatment of Jews: "..the Arabs have persecuted us severely, and passed baneful and discriminatory legislation against us...Never did a nation molest, degrade, debase, and hate us as much as they.."

A valid summary assessment of interfaith relationships in Muslim Spain, and the contemporary currents responsible for obfuscating that history, can be found in Richard Fletcher's engaging Moorish Spain. Mr. Fletcher offers these sobering, unassailable observations:

"The witness of those who lived through the horrors of the Berber conquest, of the Andalusian fitnah in the early eleventh century, of the Almoravid invasion- to mention only a few disruptive episodes- must give it [i.e., the roseate view of Muslim Spain] the lie. The simple and verifiable historical truth is that Moorish Spain was more often a land of turmoil than it was of tranquility...Tolerance? Ask the Jews of Granada who were massacred in 1066, or the Christians who were deported by the Almoravids to Morocco in 1126 (like the Moriscos five centuries later)…In the second half of the twentieth century a new agent of obfuscation makes its appearance: the guilt of the liberal conscience, which sees the evils of colonialism- assumed rather than demonstrated-foreshadowed in the Christian conquest of al-Andalus and the persecution of the Moriscos (but not, oddly, in the Moorish conquest and colonization). Stir the mix well together and issue it free to credulous academics and media persons throughout the western world. Then pour it generously over the truth…in the cultural conditions that prevail in the west today the past has to be marketed, and to be successfully marketed it has to be attractively packaged. Medieval Spain in a state of nature lacks wide appeal. Self-indulgent fantasies of glamour...do wonders for sharpening up its image. But Moorish Spain was not a tolerant and enlightened society even in its most cultivated epoch."

The socio-political history of Andalusia was characterized by a particularly oppressive dhimmitude that is completely incompatible with modern notions of equality between individuals, regardless of religious faith. At the dawn of the 21st century, we must insist that Muslims in the West adopt post-Enlightenment societal standards of equality, not "tolerance," abandoning forever their hagiography of the brutal, discriminatory standards practiced by the classical Maliki jurists of "enlightened" Andalusia.»

Mapa retirado do sítio Atlas Histórico do Mediterrâneo.
Não deixe de ver a etiqueta sobre o Al-Andalus. Livros de Bat Ye'or. Livros de Andrew Bostom.
The Book Depository

5 comentários:

| disse...

Muslims sobre o outro blog

http://www.orkut.com/Main#CommMsgs?cmm=12546328&tid=5436735208656894044

Luís Cardoso disse...

Parecem não ter percebido que Spencer assinala uma contradição, ou melhor, que está implícita a conversão dos judeus ao islão na passagem em causa, porque salat e zakat são oração e esmola islâmicas, respectivamente.
Obrigado pela informação?
Posso saber como chegou a ela?
Cumprimentos,

裕瑤 disse...
Este comentário foi removido por um administrador do blogue.
Vicente Incrédulo disse...

Poderemos comparar a conquista islâmica com a reconquista cristã, e a forma como ambos lidaram com as populações de religião contrária.

Se é certo que durante a reconquista cristã muitas atrocidades foram cometidas, o que acontece em todas as guerras, não é menos verdade que, pelo menos no caso português, a tolerância foi muito maior da parte dos cristãos que da parte dos "mouros". D. Afonso Henriques protegeu os muçulmanos que viviam no seu reino e tive excelentes relações com os judeus.
O reinado de Afonso Henriques ficou marcado pela tolerância para com os judeus. Estes estavam organizados num sistema próprio, representados politicamente pelo grão-rabino nomeado pelo rei.
O grão-rabino Yahia Ben Yahia foi mesmo escolhido para ministro das Finanças de Afonso Henriques, responsável pela coleta de impostos no reino. Com esta escolha teve início uma tradição de escolher judeus para a área financeira e de manter um bom entendimento com as comunidades judaicas, que foi seguida por seus sucessores.
Esta tolerância apenas terminaria no reinado de D. Manuel com a expulsão dos "mouros" e dos Judeus, e no reinado de D. João III com a criação da Inquisição, dois marcos negros na nossa História, que marcam o início do declínio português.

Vicente

Luís Cardoso disse...

Vicente,
escreva-me um email.
Cumprimentos,