A tax (the kharaj) was levied on the lands left to the indigenous dhimmis. This tax symbolized the Arabization of the land of the dhimmis, that is, its addition to the patrimony of the Arab-Islamic community. In the early period of colonization, lands given in fief were exonerated from the kharaj. Each male dhimmi, with the theoretical exceptions of the aged, invalids, and slaves, had to pay a poll tax (the jizya), which symbolized the subjection and humiliation of the vanquished. The dhimmis also paid double the taxes of the Muslims. In addition, ransoms (avanias) were frequently extorted from the local Jewish and Christian communities under threat of collective sanctions, including torture and death.
It was forbidden for dhimmis on pain of death:Excerto de The Myth of Islamic Tolerance, Prometheus Books, New Your, 2005, How Islamic Law treats non-Muslims, Edição: Robert Spencer; Dhimmi Peoples, Bat Ye'or. pp.115-117.
The dhimmis were obliged:
- to carry or possess weapons;
- to raise a hand against a Muslim, even against an aggressor or unjustly determined to kill them;
- to ally themselves with the enemies of the Arabs;
- to criticize Islam, the Prophet, or the angels;
- to convert to any religion other than Islam, and having converted to Islam to revert to their original religion;
- to be linked by marriage or concubinage to a Muslim woman;
- to hold a position giving them authority over a Muslim.
It was forbidden for the dhimmis:
- to live separated from Muslims, in special quarters of a town, the gates of which were closed every evening, or, as in Yemen, outside the limits of towns inhabited by Muslims;
- to have shorter houses than those of Muslims;
- to practice their religion secretly and in silence;
- to bury their dead hastily;
- to refrain from showing in public religious objects, such as crosses, banners, or sacred texts;
- to distinguish themselves from Muslims by their exterior aspect; to wear clothes distinguished not only by shape (length, style of sleeves, etc.) but also by specific colors assigned to each group of dhimmis, i.e., for Jews, Christians, and Samaritans;
- to have different type of tombs from those of Muslims.
Furthermore, all elements of their exterior appearance were intended to:
- to go near mosques or to enter certain venerated towns, which would thereby be polluted;
- to have headdresses, belts, shoes, ornate saddles, or saddles similar to those of Muslims.
The dhimmis were obliged:
- emphasize their humble and abject status. They were forbidden to ride horses or camels, since these animals were considered too noble for them. Donkeys were permitted, but they could only ride them outside towns, and they had to dismount on sight of a Muslim.
- In certain periods they were forced to wear distinctive badges in the public baths, and in certain regions they were even forbidden to enter them at all.
- to make haste in the streets, always passing to the left (impure) side of a Muslim, who was advised to push them to the wall;
- to walk humbly with lowered eyes;
- to accept insults without replying;
- to remain standing in a humble and respectful attitude in the presence of a Muslim;
- to leave Muslims the best places;
- never to speak to Muslims except to reply.
- Any litigation between a dhimmi and a Muslim was brought before an Islamic tribunal, where the dhimmi's testimony was unacceptable.